Encouragement

Psychosocial benefits of encouraging others includes having a positive view of oneself and being open to new experiences[1][15]. People who encourage others are more liked[16]. The ability to encourage others, are linked to a range of positive outcomes including positive mental health, academic achievement, and physical health[12].

Encouraging others creates a positive atmosphere and increases the chance of also receiving encouragement back. Receiving encouragement is linked to higher self-efficacy in school and at work[6][7][8][9]. Encouragement from family members has been found to be positively associated with adherence to a healthy behaviors[4][5]. Encouragement can in some cases improve decision-making[10][11]. Encouragement is a key process for parents to provide support to their children[2] and foster family resilience[3]. Being praised is linked to happiness, joy, pride and pleasure[19]. It has also been shown to promote improved behavior and academic performance[17][18]. Children who are praised have better social skills[13][14].

Rate your health contributing behaviour so we can help you improve.

0.0%
I do not agree with this statement. I somewhat agree. This may sometimes be representative. I agree with this statement. It describes my situation very well.
I give compliments.
I try to instill courage and hope in others.
I praise others just after they have acomplished a task successfully.
I am specific when I give praise.
I show that I value others by asking them for advice.
I praise others in public, in a way they will appreciate.
I trust others with more.
I give 5 times more positive feedback than negative.
I tell people I believe in them.
I ask others how I can support or help them in achieve their goals.
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      Research
      • [1] Evans, T. D., Dedrick, R. F., & Epstein, M. J. (1997). Development and initial validation of the encouragement scale (educator form). The Journal of Humanistic Education and Development, 35, 163-174. doi:10.1002/j.2164-4683.1997. tb00366.x
      • [2] Roggman, L. A., Cook, G. A., Innocenti, M. S., Jump Norman, V., & Christiansen, K. (2013). Parenting interactions with children: Checklist of observations linked to outcomes (PICCOLO) in diverse ethnic groups. Infant Mental Health Journal, 34, 290-306. doi:10.1002/imhj.21389
      • [3] Walsh, F. (2003). Family resilience: A framework for clinical practice. Family Process, 42, 1-18. doi:10.1111/j.1545-5300.2003.00001.x
      • [4] Sallis, J. F., Grossman, R. M., Pinski, R. B., Patterson, T. L., & Nader, P. R. (1987). The development of scales to measure social support for diet and exercise behaviors. Preventive Medicine, 16, 825-836. doi:10.1016/0091-7435(87)90022-3
      • [5] Stephens, M. A. P., Rook, K. S., Franks, M. M., Khan, C., & Iida, M. (2010). Spouses use of social control to improve diabetic patients’ dietary adherence. Families, Systems, & Health, 28, 199-208. doi:10.1037/a0020513
      • [6] Lent, R. W., Lopez, F. G., & Bieschke, K. J. (1991). Mathematics self-efficacy: Sources and relation to science-based career choice. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38, 424-430. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.38.4.424
      • [7] Joët, G., Usher, E. L., & Bressoux, P. (2011). Sources of self-efficacy: An investigation of elementary school students in France. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 649-663. doi:10.1037/a0024048
      • [8] Kiran, D., & Sungur, S. (2012). Middle school students’ science self-efficacy and its sources: Examination of gender difference. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 21, 619-630. doi:10.1007/s10956-011-9351-y
      • [9] Anderson, S. L., & Betz, N. E. (2001). Sources of social self-efficacy expectations: Their measurement and relation to career development. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58, 98-117. doi:10.1006/jvbe.2000.1753
      • [10] Brownlow, S., Janas, A. J., Blake, K. A., Rebadow, K. T., & Mellon, L. M. (2011). Getting by with a little help from my friends: Mental rotation ability after tacit peer encouragement. Psychology, 2, 363-370.
      • [11] Luzzo, D. A., & Taylor, M. (1993). Effects of verbal persuasion on the career self-efficacy of college freshmen. California Association for Counseling and Development Journal, 14, 31-34.
      • [12] Niemiec, R. M. (2013). VIA character strengths: Research and practice (The first 10 years). In H. H. Knoop & A. Delle Fave (Eds.), Well-being and cultures: Perspectives on positive psychology (pp. 11-30). New York, NY: Springer.
      • [13] Garner PW. 2006. Prediction of prosocial and emotional competence from maternal behavior in African American preschoolers. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 12(2):179-98.
      • [14] Hastings PD, McShane KE, Parker R, and Ladha F. 2007. Ready to make nice: parental socialization of young sons' and daughters' prosocial behaviors with peers. J Genet Psychol. 168(2):177-200.
      • [15] Phelps, R. E., Tranakos-Howe, S., Dagley, J. C., & Lyn, M. K. (2001). Encouragement and ethnicity in African American college students. Journal of Counseling & Development, 79, 90-97. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.2001.tb01947.x
      • [16] Kelly, F. D., & Daniels, J. G. (1997). The effects of praise versus encouragement on children’s perceptions of teachers. Individual Psychology, 53, 331-341.
      • [17] Strain, Phillip S.; Lambert, Deborah L.; Kerr, Mary Margaret; Stagg, Vaughan; Lenkner, Donna A. (1983). "Naturalistic assessment of children's compliance to teachers' requests and consequences for compliance". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 16 (2): 243–249. doi:10.1901/jaba.1983.16-243.
      • [18] Garland, Ann F.; Hawley, Kristin M.; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Hurlburt, Michael S. (May 2008). "Identifying Common Elements of Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Children's Disruptive Behavior Problems". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 47 (5): 505–514. doi:10.1097/CHI.0b013e31816765c2.
      • [19] DELIN, CATHERINE R.; BAUMEISTER, ROY F. (September 1994). "Praise: More Than Just Social Reinforcement". Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 24 (3): 219–241. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5914.1994.tb00254.x.
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