Love and belonging

A sense of belonging appears to be a basic human need[1][7][19]. When individuals are accepted, welcomed, or included it leads those individuals to feel positive emotions such as happiness, elation, calm, and satisfaction[10][14][19]. A culture of compassionate love can increase mood, quality of life and satisfaction[3]. A sense of belonging can increase personal achievement and performance in the workplace or in education[4][17][20][21]. A sense of connectedness can release Endorphins which can create the sensation of euphoria and relief from pain[6]. People who are loved during life die satisfied[5]. When individuals are rejected or excluded, they feel strong negative emotions such as anxiety, jealousy[9], depression[15][16], and grief[11][12][13]. The psychological pain caused by social rejection is so intense that it involves the same brain regions involved in the experience of physical pain[8]. Reduced sense of belonging has been linked to decreased personal achievements in groups[2]. People who lack belongingness are more prone to behavioral problems such as criminality and suicide[18], and suffer from increasing mental and physical illness[7].

Rate your health contributing behaviour so we can help you improve.

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I do not agree with this statement. I somewhat agree. This may sometimes be representative. I agree with this statement. It describes my situation very well.
I involve myself in communities where I feel welcome.
I accept others for who they are.
I do my best to be a loving person.
I don't pretend to be someone I am not.
I always want to learn more about myself.
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      Category: Emotional health

      Research
      • [1] Pelletier, K. Sound Mind, Sound Body: A New Model For Lifelong Health, 137-138. New York: Simon and Shuster (1995).
      • [2] Walton, G. M., & Cohen, G. L. (2007). A question of belonging: Race, social fit, and achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 82-96. View
      • [3] Barsade, S.G. and O.Neill, O.A. (in press) What's love got to do with it? A longitudinal study of the culture of companionate love and employee and client outcomes in the long-term care setting. Administrative Science Quarterly. View
      • [4] Aronson J ( 2002). Improving academic achievement: Impact of psychological factors on education, New York: Academic Press.
      • [5] Hartwell-Walker, M. (2002) The Secret to Being Loved. View
      • [6] Selhub, E. (2009). The love response. New York, NY: Random House, Inc.
      • [7] Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497-529. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.49
      • [8] MacDonald, G., & Leary, M. R. (2005). Why does social exclusion hurt? The relationship between social and physical pain. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 202-223. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.131.2.202
      • [9] Reiss, I. L. (1986). A sociological journey into sexuality. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48, 233–242.
      • [10] Well-being in the workplace and its relationship to business outcomes: A review of the Gallup studies. Harter, James K.; Schmidt, Frank L.; Keyes, Corey L. M. Keyes, Corey L. M. (Ed); Haidt, Jonathan (Ed), (2003). Flourishing: Positive psychology and the life well-lived. , (pp. 205-224). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, xx, 335 pp. View
      • [11] Leary MR. Emotional responses to interpersonal rejection. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. 2015;17(4):435-441.
      • [12] Richman LS., Leary MR. Reactions to discrimination, stigmatization, ostracism, and other forms of interpersonal rejection: A dynamic, multi-motive model. Psychol Rev. 2009;116(2):365–383.
      • [13] Leary MR., Twenge JM., Quinlivan E. Interpersonal rejection as a determinant of anger and aggression. Pers Soc Psychol Rev. 2006;10(2):111–132.
      • [14] Brown AC., Orthner DK. Relocation and personal well-being among early adolescents. J Early Adolesc. 1990;10(3):366–381.
      • [15] Cockshaw, W., & Shochet, I. (2010). The link between belongingness and depressive symptoms: An exploration in the workplace interpersonal context. Australian Psychologist, 45(4), 283-289. doi:10.1080/00050061003752418.
      • [16] Steger, M. F., & Kashdan, T. B. (2009). Depression and everyday social activity, belonging, and well-being. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(2), 289-300. doi:10.1037/a0015416
      • [17] Pittman, L. D., & Richmond, A. (2007). Academic and Psychological Functioning in Late Adolescence: The Importance of School Belonging. Journal of Experimental Education, 75(4), 270-290.
      • Timmons, K. A., Selby, E. A., Lewinsohn, P. M., & Joiner, T. E. (2011).
      • [18] Parental Displacement and Adolescent Suicidality: Exploring the Role of Failed Belonging. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40(6), 807-817. doi:10.1080/15374416.2011.614584
      • [19] Mellor, David; Stokes, M.; Firth, L.; Hayashi, Y.; Cummins, R. (August 2008). "Need for belonging, relationship satisfaction, loneliness, and life satisfaction.". Personality and Individual Differences 45 (3): 213–218. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.03.020.
      • [20] Sherif, M., Harvey, O.J., White, B.J., Hood, W., & Sherif, C.W. (1961). Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation: The Robbers Cave Experiment. Norman, OK: The University Book Exchange. pp. 155–184.
      • [21] Tajfel, H., Flament, C., Billig, M. G., & Bundy, R. F. (1971).Social categorization and intergroup behaviour. European Journal of Social Psychology, 1, 149-177. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2420010202
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